Tramadol is a synthetic analgesic that belongs to opioid non-steroidal drugs. It affects the spinal cord and central nervous system, while slowing down the conduct of pain impulses and provoking hyperpolarization of the membranes.
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The drug has a strong analgesic effect, which lasts for a long time. It is responsible for the activation of opioid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract and brain. Also, this drug can significantly slow down the destruction process and stabilizes the concentration of catecholamines in the central nervous system.
This medication is a selective μ-opioid receptor agonist. It selectively inhibits reverse neuronal capture of norepinephrine and serotonin. At the same doses, analgesic effect of Tramadol is about five to ten times weaker than morphine.
If you follow the drug dosage, indicated in the instructions, Tramadol doesn’t significantly affect hemodynamics or respiration. Moreover, in this case, it neither changes the pressure indicators in the pulmonary artery nor significantly affects intestinal peristalsis, slowing down its work.
The drug has an antitussive and sedative effect. If the treatment lasts long, you can develop a tolerance. Pain relief comes approximately 20-30 minutes after intravenous administration and lasts for about six hours.
Indications for use
Tramadol is recommended for use in case of severe and moderate pain, which has a vascular, traumatic and inflammatory etiology. Moreover, this drug is used during diagnosis, as well as therapeutic procedures associated with pain. It is also used for patients who have cancer and in the postoperative period. If the pain isn’t too strong, you still have to stop using the medication.
Existing contraindications for use
Tramadol is not recommended for prescription in the following conditions:
- Severe form of renal and liver failure;
- Use of monoamine oxidase inhibitor;
- Breastfeeding, except for one-time use of the drug;
- Conditions in which breathing or CNS is depressed due to medication or alcohol poisoning;
- Hypersensitivity to the drug components.
The instructions for Tramadol indicate that it can’t be used perinatally by children under the age of one, and an intravenous administration is prohibited for children under the age of 14.
Patients with mental confusion and abdominal pain of unknown origin, epileptic syndromes, traumatic brain injuries, intracranial hypertension and drug addiction should take this drug with caution.
Possible side effects
The use of Tramadol can lead to such side effects as vertigo, excess sweating, unsteady gait, impaired movement coordination, amnesia, seizures, depression, mental confusion, sleeping disorders, sleepiness, emotional lability, tremor, anxiety, hallucinations, euphoria, nervousness, muscle cramps and agitation.
There may also be side effects from the digestive system, such as flatulence, sickness, dryness in the mouth, diarrhea or constipation and stomachache.
From the side of cardiovascular system: collapse, faint, orthostatic hypotension and tachycardia.
Overdose with this drug can lead to such symptoms as vomiting, apnea, collapse, seizures, respiratory center depression and come.
Overdose must be treated by means of maintaining the airway patency and the activity of the cardiovascular system. To stop opioid-like effects, you should take Naloxone; if seizures appear, benzodiazepine will be effective.
Tramadol shouldn’t be used for the treatment of drug withdrawal syndrome. It can’t be mixed with ethanol. If the drug is used on an ad hoc basis, you don’t have to stop breastfeeding. During the treatment, people who are engaged in dangerous (potentially) works and those who drive vehicles should be careful.